Visual-Meta is a method of including meta-information about the document and its contents visibly in the document as a human and machine readable appendix. It contains citation, addressing and formatting information.


Visual-Meta enables Augmented Copying (Copying As Citation, or  Scholarly Copy,) by providing a transparently easy way to add full metadata to documents (initially PDF). Proof-of-concept implementations are怎么改变自己的外网ip and Reader as shown here in a brief demo: http://youtu.be/rjeEPnPzD6c


Adds rich metadata of the formatting of included elements including headings for instant folding of the document and executing searches with heading elements included in the results, and description of how to parse tables, images and special interactions such as graphs, for dynamic re-creation by reader software.


This is not a new format, this is a novel use and extension of the academic-standard BibTeX format with JSON additions.

Furthermore, the approach is not tied to existing means of dealing with information, it is simply an approach and should always lean away from optimising what is presented and towards making it easily human and machine understandable, including the addressing mechanisms used, which should not simply be server-centric, but more robust and include redundancy (Voß, 2023). This will also help us deal with link-rot and other needs for maintain with server based models in the future (Anderson, Carr, Millard, 2017). Further developments can support different types of metadata, including semantic metadata (Al-Khalifa & Davis, 2006), yet it does not impose a new standard, such as the semantic web does (Marshall & Shipman, 2004), while it at the same time opens new opportunities for Visual-Meta aware systems, providing immediate benefits, as outlined above.


As it is today, academic documents have a few special fields for metadata (Abstract and Keywords) but they are not included in Reference Section of the documents which cite them, hence they are one step removed for analysis and not available to the reader. Visual-Meta can easily accommodate such extra metadata without interfering with the fashionable cosmetic layout preferences of the academic field, institution or journal. This can allow documents can take on hypertextual node characteristics. The benefits can be profound.

A description of this is available at wordpress.liquid.info/07/unleashing-hypertextuality-in-documents/frode/


Visual-Meta provides robust support for advanced interactions by storing meta at content level. Visual-Meta stores dynamic interactions in a non-interactive medium. Visual-Meta can also provide servers with information about what is in the document in a semantically meaningful way for better extraction of textual and multimedia components.

A Visual-Meta PDF document will be able to survive in a hybrid digital-analog environment (Laouris, 2015) and through changes in technological infrastructures for as long as documents can be printed and the PDF document model will be understood. A Visual-Meta document can be printed, then scanned again and with OCR all the benefits of Visual-Meta will be available again, reducing the need for elaborate link re-creating interventions (Morishima, Nakamizo, Iida, Sugimoto, Kitagawa, 2009) (Kolak & Schilit, 2008). Because all the interactable variables, can potentially be recorded in the Visual-Meta, this is a path to full, not partial (Marshall & Golovchinsky, 2004), archivability of interactive text with explicit knowledge presented and included (Carr, Miles-Board, Woukeu, Wills, Hall, 2005). It could also become a powerful tool in analysis and operations of multiple documents, where links could be based on inferable relationships between attributes of a document (Carr, 2007), truly releasing the potential power of digital metadata (Tarrant, Carr, Payne, 2008) and the utility of digital ‘eprint’ repositories (Hitchcock, Carr, et al., 2004).


  • 360 video of the presentation: youtu.be/_8HVHssj11o
  • Presentation slideshow (recorded before live presentation): ip地址开头255是_zuciwang.com:1999-12-31 · IP地址由四组三位数据和点组成的,每个 San 位数字值必须在0~255之间,也就还0.0.0.0~ Zhi 间,只要IP必须在这个IP段里,但是255.255.255.255 Shi 广播地址一般是不使用的,另外有些地址是 Bu 使用的例如192.168.1.1这样的 Yi 般为路由
  • The ACM Digital Library Paper on Visual Meta: win10中怎么修改IP地址?win10重新设置IP_windows10 ...:2021-9-11 · win10中怎么修改IP地址?公司有很多ip地址提供我伊选择,有的ip的网速很慢,不是很方便下载上传软件,该怎么才能重新设置网址到更快的ip地址呢?下面我伊来看看win10 ip地址的设置和查看方法,需要的朋友可伍围观


  • Advanced Meta embedded in the document header or package is not directly accessible by end user
  • Easy to Add & Extract. A common complaint about embedded meta is that there is no standard beyond the basics (which are not often employed) and is therefore near-impossible to use at scale. Being based on BibTeX means that a simple copy and paste will add significant added, useful meta
  • Self-explaining standard which requires no technical expertise to add
  • End-User immediate benefit for adding Visual-Meta. End-users who add Visual-Meta to their own or legacy PDFs have the immediate benefit of Scholarly Copy and not being locked into a Reference Manager, making Visual-Meta more adoptable than trying to establish a new header-meta standard.
  • Robust:
    • Can survive document format change
    • 电脑能上外网 模拟器上不了 _ 有问必答 - 靠谱社区:2021-6-10 · 电脑已经翻墙,可伍上外网。模拟器里面打开百度搜索IP地址也是国外的IP,可就是上不了外网,好奇怪啊,有谁知道怎么回事 ...
    • DHCP提供的ip地址租期时间一般为多久? - Sogou:2021-9-29 · 当租期快到了,他就给dhcp服务器发送请求,要求续约,如果dhcp服务器正常工作,而且续约成功的话,那么客户端就可伍接着使用那个ip地址。当到达最大租期,就不可伍再续约了,就会断网一次,从新获得ip地址。
  • Trivially easy for a human reader to verify
  • Trivially easy to append to legacy documents and to strip if not desired anymore
  • Can handle large amounts of formatting information for reader software to use to reformat and re-present the document as well as provide rich interactions


Legacy documents can easily have Visual-Meta appended upon being opened in a Visual-Meta aware PDF reader for use immediately or in the future. 49 Second demonstration of how to apply Visual-Meta to any document which has a DOI to allow Copy As Citation: youtu.be/ymtoOnPH0A4


Legacy documents can easily have Visual-Meta appended upon being opened in a Visual-Meta aware PDF reader for use immediately or in the future.

49 Second demonstration of how to apply Visual-Meta to any document which has a DOI to allow Copy As Citation: (youtu.be/ymtoOnPH0A4)


This is what the Visual-Meta for the Visual-Meta ACM article looks like. Please note, font and size does not matter. The formatting has been co-designed with Jakob Voß at NAT模式下VMware中CentOS7无法连接外网的解决方法 ...:2021-11-7 · 可伍查看到子网IP、掩码和网关 点击确定,回到上一步在点击DHCP设置 这里注意查看起始IP地址和结束IP地址,如本文中是: 之后我伊需要在linux中设置静态IP,选择的IP地址就在上述区间内选择,此外还有广播地址,不过

author = {Hegland, Frode},
title = {Visual-Meta: An Approach to Surfacing Metadata},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2Nd International Workshop on Human Factors in Hypertext}, series = {HUMAN '19},
year = {2023},
isbn = {978-1-4503-6899-5},
location = {Hof, Germany},
pages = {31--33},
numpages = {3},
url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3345509.3349281},
doi = {10.1145/3345509.3349281},
acmid = {3349281},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
keywords = {archiving, bibtex citing, citations, engelbart, future, glossary, hypertext, meta,
metadata, ohs, pdf, rfc, text}, }
  • Addressing Information

Addressing information for citing the document is the usual citation information (author, title, etc.) and will have scope to be augmented with high resolution (Wilde & Baschnagel, 2005) linking to web pages, blogs in particular and in-PDF sections and robust multi-addressing. This is ongoing work which can strengthen the peer-to-peer connectivity document (rather than server or location) addressability can offer (Wiil, Bouvin, Larsen, De Roure, Thompson, 2004).

  • Formatting Information

The formatting specification is implemented as custom fields, which can include anything the authoring software can describe, for extraction into interactive systems. Please also look at the JSON Extension below.

General Formatting: formatting = { heading level 1 = {Helvetica, 22pt, bold}, heading level 2 = {Helvetica, 18, bold}, body = {Times, 12pt}, image captions = {‘Times, l4, italic, align centre} },

Citation Formatting, to allow reader application to display citations in any style:citations = { inline = {superscript number}, section name = {References}, section format = {author last name, author first name, title, date, place, publisher} },

  • Glossary, to allow reader application to see any use glossary terms:

ip地址开头255是_zuciwang.com:1999-12-31 · IP地址由四组三位数据和点组成的,每个 San 位数字值必须在0~255之间,也就还0.0.0.0~ Zhi 间,只要IP必须在这个IP段里,但是255.255.255.255 Shi 广播地址一般是不使用的,另外有些地址是 Bu 使用的例如192.168.1.1这样的 Yi 般为路由

  • Special

Special, to allow the authoring application to add anything, which a human programmer or advanced ML can read and optionally use:

special = { name = {DynamicView}, node= {nodcname, location, connections} }

  • Provenance

The ‘version’ field is the version of Visible-Meta, the ‘generator’ is what added the Visual-Meta to the document and the ‘source’ is where the data comes from, particularly to be used if appended to a legacy document:

visible-meta = { version = {1.1}, generator = {Liquid | Author 4.6}, source = {Scholarcy, 2023,08,01} }

  • 怎么更改手机外网ip

Please note, the ‘@{visual-meta-end}’ is crucial to have as the last element in the document since it is recommended to parse the document in reverse and have the software look for this element to confirm that visual-meta is present.

Computational Text Extensions

Extensions can include time information, location information and Vint Cerf introduced the term ‘Computational Text’ summer of 2023 to cover text in a document which can be integrated with by the author’s choice, rather than by brute force in reader software. This is the type of work Bret Victor (Victor, 2010) is known for and Bruce Horn has developed decades ago. It takes on new relevance with Visual-Meta and Reader since the aspect of Visual-Meta being ‘reverse CSS’, in the words of Jakob Voß. Text or images in the body of the document can be referred to in the Visual-Meta and instructions for interactions presented. This is an early overview of computational text types, which will be elaborated on by the Future Text Initiative advisors over time at computationaltext.info

• Relative time dimensions such as ‘yesterday’, ‘tomorrow’, ‘Friday’ and so on could be stored with reference to the date and time it was typed, if the author chooses, for future reading to either automatically update the text or to allow a reader to manually or by preference specify that any dates should be from the reader’s point in time.
• Any mathematical equations, although tools external to the text can make this work.
• Names of people, places etc. can be encoded with multiple spellings or writing styles (with or without middle initial fx) and external identity servers, such as ORCID.
• Alternative versions for authoring, so that an author can toggle which paragraph or word should be used (like Final Cut Auditions).
• Images to replace text in specific views, such as company logos in a graph view or in a scrolling/search view.
• Glossary definitions which can be dynamically expanded and contracted in the text when reading, at the reader’s presence.
• Transclusions and live links to external text.
• Links which contain the entirety of what they link to, for robustness, in addition to the link.
• Geographical information behind text such as ‘here’.
• Actual computer code, if computer language is somehow and somewhere specified.

The first part shows what text in the document is referred to, followed by the date and finished with a description of what type of data it is:

ip伋理地址 - 好看123:2021-6-15 · 7.免费伋理IP地址大全高匿伋理IP服务器爬虫IP供应商智连HTTP 点击前往 网站介绍:智连http伋理是知名的伋理ip品牌,专业提供动态ip,免费ip伋理,socks5伋理,爬虫伋理,伋理ip软件,手机伋理ip,ip在线伋理等,为上万家伋业用户提供海量优质高匿伋理服务...

[ {“name”:”8:23am, Tuesday, 13th of May 2023″, “2,208,988,800”:”typeNTP”},
{“name”:”14th & Madison, NY”, “Latitude: 40 degrees, 42 minutes, 51 seconds N”:”latlong”},
{“name”:”David Millard”, “0000-0002-7512-2710, “person”:”http://orcid.org”},
] </json>

Please keep in mind that the goal is to be able to copy and paste data across systems while specifying how it is defined and formatted, as shown in brackets above. This is about self-declaring data (to a human or translation code) visible in plain sight, it is about allowing users to copy and paste self-defining JSON data.

These can be data pods, they do not necessarily need to be part of a document. As for the specifics, that is purely a matter of implementation.

Picture the scenarios: You read an ordinary PDF and you come across the time an event happened and you can click on that time and a menu of options are presented (depending on what reading software you are using), including showing exactly how long ago it was in the past (or how near in the future) and lets you copy the time and use it when you come across another time event where you can now automatically see how far apart they are in time.

Picture the same with geographical information; you can copy and paste locations and use them semantically with other locations.

Imagine coming across the names of people and having a solid link to their online presence and not having to guess who is really who.

And much, much more–this addressability creates the opportunity for rich, useful interactions.

Rights Extension

There is no reason why the Visual-Meta cannot encode the rights the author confers onto the reader, for use, re-use, transclusion and caching.


JSON can be used to augment the way headings are recorded for a more robust result, as used in The Future of Text book:

[ {“name”:”Acknowledgements”, “level”:”level1″},

{“name”:”Contents”, “level”:”level1″},

{“name”:”Dear Reader of The Distant Future”, “level”:”level2″},

局域网-局域网可伍登录后台吗?-钉钉帮助中心 - DingTalk:钉钉帮助中心为您提供局域网相关问题的回答,更多局域网问题相关解答可伍注册咨询钉钉人工客服。 您好,D2不支持局域网使用,但支持离线刷脸开门,离线后存储1万条开门记录,超过会往前覆盖的,建议及时将D2联网,伍免丢失开门记录哦。

{“name”:”the future of text : Articles”, “level”:”level1″},

{“name”:”Adam Cheyer”, “level”:”level2″},

{“name”:”Adam Kampff”, “level”:”level2″}, }]

JSON can also potentially be used to encode the entire document to enable advanced functions like complete reformatting of the document to suit the reader. Since the visual-meta can be very, very small, this does not have to impact the document page number significantly.

‘Stamp’ Of Provenance

【nat 虚拟机linux联网】-博文推荐-CSDN博客:2021-3-18 · csdn已为您找到关于nat 虚拟机linux联网相关内容,包含nat 虚拟机linux联网相关文档伋码介绍、相关教学视频课程,伍及相关nat 虚拟机linux联网问答内容。为您解决当下相关问题,如果想了解更详细nat 虚拟机linux联网内容,请点击详情链接进行了解,或者注册账号与客服人员联系给您提供相关内容的 ...

[24] Kitromili, S. & Jordan, J. & Millard, D., in Proceedings of the 30th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media. 2023.
What is Hypertext Authoring? New York, NY, USA.
DOI: 10.1145/3342220.3343653. {Visual-Meta}

Future Text Initiative

The Visual-Meta approach is part of the Future Text Initiative which also includes the book The Future of Text and the Author, Reader and Liquid software projects.

Further Information

Further description is on the blog: wordpress.liquid.info/visual-meta and further information at: Visible-Meta Example & Structure. Full source code for parsing visual-meta will be made available here. Addressing is discussed at 【nat 虚拟机linux联网】-博文推荐-CSDN博客:2021-3-18 · csdn已为您找到关于nat 虚拟机linux联网相关内容,包含nat 虚拟机linux联网相关文档伋码介绍、相关教学视频课程,伍及相关nat 虚拟机linux联网问答内容。为您解决当下相关问题,如果想了解更详细nat 虚拟机linux联网内容,请点击详情链接进行了解,或者注册账号与客服人员联系给您提供相关内容的 ...

The visual-meta approach is very much inspired by Doug Engelbart’s notion of an xFile and his insistence that high-resolution addressability should be human readable. Here is an brief interview with him from the early 2010s, with more available on 争取用这一篇文章帮你搞定NS连网和联机问题 - 知乎:[更新中]不管使用哪种联网设备,电脑、电视还是游戏机,都要知道自己所在的网络如何,不然连有效的向别人求助都做不到。 另外,新NS要先有本地用户,创建本地用户的方法在这里(视频教学),没有帐号的 …

‘This is a very important concept’
Vint Cerf